Thursday, October 30, 2014

Worldwide Integrated Assessment of the Impact of Systemic Pesticides on Biodiversity and Ecosytems

The Worldwide Integrated Assessment of the Impact of Systemic Pesticides on Biodiversity and Ecosystems (WIA) has examined over 800 scientific studies spanning the last five years, including industry sponsored ones. It is the single most comprehensive study of neonics ever undertaken, is peer reviewed, and published as free access so that the findings and the source material can be thoroughly examined by others.
Some aspects of this analysis have been broadly acknowledged before (e.g. risks to honeybees), but some have not (e.g. risks to birds, earthworms, other pollinators and aquatic invertebrates).
Individual studies have focussed on impacts on particular organisms, habitats or locations (e.g. bees in France, waterways in the Netherlands, birds in the US) and relatively few have specifically focused on biodiversity and ecosystem impacts, so this analysis moves our understanding forward in a much more holistic and extensive way.
Where the available data enables this, the analysis extends consideration of the risks beyond individual species and groups, to whole communities and ecosystem processes.
29 authors representing many disciplines synthesized the scientific knowledge of the impacts (real and potential) of these systemic pesticides. The work was separated in seven main chapters:
Read the full publication here:
http://www.tfsp.info/worldwide-integrated-assessment/

Thursday, October 23, 2014

Won't You Teach Some Bee Love?

We are really on a winning streak with our speakers.  Dr. Becky Masterman from the U of M joined us on October 20 for a super informative and lively conversation.  


Becky manages the UMN Bee Squad http://beelab.umn.edu/BeeSquad/.  The Bee Squad provides education for hobby beekeepers and programming for people and organizations that want to support bees.

The Magic Equation

Becky has heard from many people who want to support bees but not be beekeepers, maybe public attitude is shifting as people finally realize that pollinators are responsible for 1 in 3 bites of our food.
 So it really is up to people like us to educate others about bees.

Increasing Public Concern

+

Increase in Beekeeping

=

Opportunity to Educate the Public and Help Beekeepers


The next important area of education is this: 


All you have to do is ask Bob Sitko, our Master Swarm Catcher Coordinator about Bee and Wasp confusion.  Bob received 72 bee swarm calls this summer and 3 times this amount for wasps.  For Bobs sake!  Let folks know the difference!  Print this photo and carry on your person!

Wasp Facts:  
Wasps eat other insects, so can be considered beneficial.
Wasps will be gone after 2 hard frosts.
Wasps will be interested in your sugary drinks in the fall, when they need food.  Consider drinking water.

Remember this?

On one day in September 2013 in Minneapolis, three bee colonies within 1 mile of each other   showed signs of a pesticide kill.  The UMN Bee Lab and Bee Squad with the MDA collected samples from each colony and found that Fipronil, which is highly toxic to bees, was found in all samples.  http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/fipronil.html#wildlife.  

Since 2006, 30% of commercial honey bee colonies die annually.  For the hobby beekeeper, it's more grim...47% losses were reported in 2013.  These numbers are from an overwintering loss survey.  Please take part in this very important survey at http://beeinformed.org.  ATTENTION BEEKEEPERS:  Take notes and keep records from your beekeeping.  The Bee Lab can use this data, and the more data the better.

In a nutshell....the problem is the 4 P's.

Pathogens
Parasites
Poor Nutrition
Pesticides

Marla's Big Bee Bummer

If you haven't seen Marla Spivaks TED talk, watch and share.  If you have seen it, watch again!


Other Random Things from Meeting

  • Bees really like full sun.  The Bee Squad's Minneapolis rooftop hives all made it through the winter.
  • The Bee Squad is tending bees on the Town and Country Golf Course.  They are thriving and the golfers are really into it.
  • Becky is a big fan of formic acid.
  • Change out your foundation at least every couple of years.  Wax and pollen hold LOTS of pesticides.
  • AND WHO KNEW THIS???  Don't use organic sugar to feed your bees!  Organic sugar is not refined, and the bees can't break it down.  Everyone can learn something new at bee club!

Until next month.....















Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Small Scale Prairie Restoration



Chris Schad from The Bee Shedgot into beekeeping with his prairie restoration work.  His idea was to feed bees naturally by increasing the quality foraging plants we grow.  Here are some of the prairie tid-bits we learned from Chris at our last meeting:


What is a prairie?

A prairie is diverse, a mixture of wildflowers (forbs) and grasses.  Prairie plants have an amazingly deep root system.  Years and years of organic matter build up in the soil from all the yummy microbial life making this soil incredibly rich.  This fact is why the prairies were cultivated all across America and turned into such rich farmland (dare I say much quicker than their formation!).  


So, how did the prairies come to be?  Back some 50 or so million years ago, tectonic plates slipped and slided just enough to make the Rocky Mountains.  This changed the light, rainfall, and entire climate of the region.  Then if that wasn't enough, about 110 thousand years ago glaciers made their way through the land giving us hilly terrain, potholes, lakes, rocky outcrops, and depositing geologic parent material everywhere.  Then it got windy, real windy.  This parent material blew and blew and deposited loess which became the important parent material for prairie formation.  

Thousands of years in the making

Over tens of thousands of years with the help of fire, buffalo, prairie dogs, and other critters, the prairies maintained themselves.  

There are 3 basic types of prairies:

Wet Prairies
Soils are moist during most of the year.  Types of plants may be Swamp Milkweed, Marsh Marigold, sedges, Joe Pye Weed, Ironweed, and Irises.

Mesic Prairies
Moderately moist soils, water soaks into the soil without runoff.  Plants may be Fragrant Hyssop, Prairie Onion, Heartleaf Aster, and Wild Blue Indigo. 

Dry Prairies
Well drained to excessively drained.  Plants may be Prairie Sage, Butterfly Weed, and Harebells.

Why restore prairies?
In times of drought, these plants have such deep root systems that they can weather the drought.  Prairies provide a diverse and nutrient rich source of food for animals and pollinators.  Prairies create habitats for animals and support pollinators and also improve water quality and prevent runoff.  Plus, they are just gorgeous.

How to restore a prairie
Site selection:  Carefully select the site and determine what kind of soil (dry, mesic, wet).  How much sun is shining on the site? Is the site on a slope?  A slope will be drier, whereas the base of a slope will be wetter with richer soil.  
Site Prep:  This is the most crucial step, just like painting, it's all in the prep work.  Don't rush, it may take more than one season to rid the land of invasive weeds.  Clear out all the crap using fire, mechanical means-smothering is best, don't till, this will just bring up weed seeds.  Or chemical such as Round-Up, if you are inclined.  Fire seems to work the best.  Make sure you know what you are doing if you are taking on the burn on your own, and get any required permit.
Seed selection:  What are your goals?  Do you want mostly a grassland, or more wildflowers?  What is your budget? Fall is often a good time for seeding since many flower seeds require stratification (cold period) to bloom.  You may consider a cover crop to add to the seeds to give you quick cover and help crowd out the weedy plants.  A good cover crop is oats.  

Don't rush any part of the process, and remember that it takes a couple of years for the prairie plants to establish their roots, so you will not see your full prairie emerge immediately.  

Maintenance is key!
Year one, mow to 8" and possibly spot treat the invasives with herbicide.  Every few years, say 3-5, consider a burn to keep the woody plant material from taking over.  

And remember... it is so worth it!
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